Forts were as diverse as they were numerous. The lack of building materials often gave way to the practice of re-using old buildings rather than demolishing them when their livelihood dwindled. Many a simple structure could see two or three completely different uses in its life span before settling down to become the shadows of history that remain for us today. The following is a partial listing of some of those colorful structures along with dates of establishment. Many of these sites are open for visitation, and are well worth the trip, some even put on special western Christmas events.
Arizona Camp Beale Springs 1866 fortified stage station Camp McPherson 1868 Camp Reno 1867 Camp Ruker 1870's, aka Camp Supply Camp Tollgate 1870 Camp Tonto 1864 Fort Apache 1870 Fort Breckenridge 1857 originally Fort Arivaipa, it was burned and abandoned at the start of the Civil War. Re-established as Camp Stanford in 1862 then abandoned due to flood. Re-establised again in 1865 as Camp Grant but the location was found to be unhealthy and it was moved 70 miles to the southeast in 1872. Fort Buchanan 1857 Fort Bowie 1861 Fort Canby aka Camp Canyon de Chelly Fort Defiance 1851 First fort in Az. Fort Goodwin 1864 Fort Huachuca 1877, Home of the Buffalo Soldiers Fort Lowell 1873 Fort Mason 1862 Fort McDowell 1865 Fort Misery 1863 Fort Mohave 1858 Fort Tyson 1850's fortified stage station. Fort Verde 1866 Fort Whipple 1864 aka Camp Clark, Whipple Barracks and Camp Pomeroy Palace Station 1874 rebuilt stage station. Windsor Castle 1872 Yuma Quartermaster Supply Depot 1864
Benicia Barracks 1849 Camp Curtis 1862 Camp Lincoln 1862 Camp Raynolds 1863 aka Angel Island. During the early 1800's it was used by English, French and Russian merchantmen to smuggle contraband past the customs officers at Yerba Buena. In its past lives it has also been used as a Mexican Rancho, a U.S. prison, a dueling ground and in 1863 a U.S military post. Cantonment Far West 1849 Captain Jack's Stronghold 1872 Drum Barracks 1862 Fort Anderson 1862 Fort Baker 1850's Fort Bidwell 1865 Fort Bragg 1855 Fort Crook 1857 Fort Defiance 1853 Fort Funston 1898 Fort Gaston 1858 Fort Gunnybags 1856 civilian fortified building Fort Humboldt 1853 Fort Jones 1852 Fort Lyon 1862 Fort Mason 1863 Fort Reading 1852 Fort Rosencrans 1898 old Spanish installation. Fort Tejon 1854 Fort Terwer 1857 Fort Winfield Scott 1853 formally Fort Point Fort Yuma 1848 Fremont Peak 1846 Built by Capt. John Fremont in anticipation of trouble with the Mexican Californianos. After four days of waiting for a battle which never came, the Fort was disassembled and the inhabitants moved on to Oregon. Hudson's Bay Co. Post 1846 British from 1841 to 1846 Presidio of San Francisco 1846 originally established in 1776 as Presidio de Yerba Buena, Americans captured it form Mexico in 1846. Sonoma Barracks 1847, established in 1836 as a Presidio and a mission in an effort to ward off Russian traders, later Presidio of Sanoma was converted to Mexican barracks which were in 1846 taken by independent Californians. America took control later in that year renaming it in 1847. Sutter's Fort 1839 began as a trading post then headquarters for Independent California in 1846 only to be taken by the American's later that year. Became Fort Union during the Civil War.
Yount's Blockhouse 1836 a settler's blockhouse
Buzzards Roost 1842 fur trading post. Camp Evans 1864 Camp Gilpin 1861 Camp on the White River 1879 Camp Weld 1861 Camp Wheeler 1864 Denver Depot 1863 Fort Collins 1864 Fort Crawford 1886 Fort Davy Crockett 1837 Fort Francisco 1862 Fort Garland 1858 Fort Jackson 1833 Fort Latham 1864 Fort Lewis 1879 Fort Logan 1889 Fort Lupton 1836 Fort Lyon 1852 Fort Massachusetts 1852 Fort Morgan 1864 Fort Namaqua 1858 fortified stage station on the Overland route. Fort Pueblo 1846 originally built in 1842 as a trading post then became the Morman Fort Independence. In 1854 Utes attacked, killing all. Fort Reynolds 1867 Fort Sedgwick 1865 Fort St. Vrain 1837 Bent and St. Vrain trading post, 125' by 100' with walls two feet thick and fourteen feet high aka Fort Lookout and Fort George. Fort Vasquez 1835 Fort William 1824 Franktown Stockade 1864 civil defence. Fremont's Christmas Camp 1848 Godfrey's Ranch Station 1865 stage station nicknamed Fort Wicked. Gray's Ranch Station 1864 Junction Station 1864 Old Bent's Fort 1828 trading post. Elf-thumbs up--great to visit Pike's Stockade 1807 Parker Stockade 1864 civil defence. Valley Station 1865 fortified stage station.
Chouteau's Fort 1816 temporary fort made from traders baggage for protection against the attacking Pawne. Fort Atkinson 1850 Fort Aubrey 1865 Fort Belmont 1860 Fort Blair 1863 Fort Dodge 1865 Fort Downer 1867 fortified stage station. Fort Harker 1864 Fort Hayes 1865 Fort Jewell 1870 Fort Larned 1859 Fort Leavenworth 1827 Fort Lincoln 1861 Fort Mann 1845 Fort Monument 1865 aka Fort Pyramid, fortified stage station Fort Reily aka Camp Moon & Camp Center Fort Scott 1842 Fort Stockade 1864 Fort Titus 1856 Fort Wallace 1865 Fort Zarah 1864 Old Fort Bissell 1872
Cantonment Jordan 1861 Flathead Post 1824 one of the Hudson's Bay Co. trading posts. Fort Assinnibione 1879 Fort at Three Forks fur trading post. Fort Benton 1846 originally an American fur trading post named Fort Lewis. U.S. Army took over in 1869 due to trouble caused by whiskey traders. Fort Custer 1877 Fort Ellis 1867 Fort Galpin 1862 fur trading post. Fort Gilbert 1864 Fort Henry 1810 fur trading post. Fort Keogh 1876 Fort Logan 1869 Fort Maginnis 1880 Fort Manual 1807 fur trading post also known as Lisa's Fort. Fort McKenzie 1831 fur trading post. Fort Missoula 1877 Fort Owen 1850 adobe/log trading post. Fort Pease 1875 stockaded trading post. Fort Peck 1869 Fort Van Buren 1835 fur trading post.
Elm Creek Fort 1869 Fort Atkinson 1820 Fort Bellevue 1823 Fort Bernard 1845 fur trading post aka Bordeaux' Post. Fort Crook 1894 Fort Grattan 1855 sod fort abandoned the same year it was built. Fort Hartsuff 1874 Fort Independence 1864 log and sod settlers fort. Fort Kearney 1846 adobe, originally named Fort Childs located in Nebraska City in 1846 was moved in 1848 to protect the trails west as well as railroad workers. Fort McPherson 1866 Fort Mitchell 1864 originally Camp Shuman, a sub post of Fort Laramie. Fort Niobrara 1880 Fort Omaha 1868 Fort Robinson 1874 built from what was originally a tent camp and established to protect the Red Cloud Indian Agenc. Crazy Horse surrendered here in 1877. Fort Sidney 1867 Liberty Pole Camp 1847 established by Mormans as a staging camp. St. Deroin Fort 1854 trading post, Lewis and Clark camped here.
Cantonment Burgwin 1851 Barklay's Fort 1848 trading post. Fort Bascom 1863 Fort Bayard 1866 Fort Craig 1854 Fort Cummings 1862 stage station from 1881-1885. Fort Fillmore adobe, stage stop captured by Confederates in 1861, California volunteers captured it in 1862 making it the capitol of the Military District of Arizona. In 1860 it was briefly commanded by a woman as the entire garrison save and except one sergeant and ten men went on a long patrol. Fort Marcy 1846 adobe, first American fort built in N.M.. In the 1850's most of its soldiers were transferred to Fort Union. The fort was abandoned in 1867 for a brief time due to the Confederate invasion of N.M.. N.M. volunteers took over the fort shortly thereafter, but in 1867 the post was ordered to be shut down. In 1875 the military, having forgotten the 1867 order, sent a relief garrison to Fort Marcy. The fort was reopened after the commanding officer reported back that there was no post at Fort Marcy. It remained operational until 1894. Fort Seldon 1865 adobe Fort Stanton 1855 burned down by Confederate soldiers, Colonel Kit Carson brought his volunteers there to rebuild in 1862. Billy the Kid was jailed here. Fort Sumner 1862 Billy the Kid was killed here. Fort Thorn 1853 Fort Union 1851 actually three forts. The first was log (1851-8161), second, a star shaped earthwork (1861-1862), third, an adobe fort begun in 1863 taking six years to build, was the largest fort in the Southwest. Fort Wingate 1862 Post of Albuquerque 1847 was also a Confederate battery in 1862
NORTH DAKOTA FORTS
Camp Hancock 1872 Double Ditch Village 1675 fortified Mandan village. Fort Abercrombie 1858 Fort Abraham Lincoln 1872 Fort Berthold 1845 fur trading post housed troops in 1863while awaiting the construction of Fort Stevenson. Fort Clark 1830 fur trading post Fort Dilts 1864 sod settler's fort. Fort Mandan 1804 Lewis and Clark's winter camp. Fort Ransom 1867 Fort Rice 1864 lod and adobe fort. Fort Stevenson 1864 Fort Steward 1872 built with the remaining pieces of Fort Ransom after it was abandoned. Fort Totten 1867 Fort Union Trading Post 1828 the longest lasting trading post in the U.S.. Operated from 1828-1867 located at the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers it was originally named Fort Floyd and traded with Indian trappers, offering ammunition, vegetables, dried meat, flour and blacksmith services in exchange for buffalo robes. Steamboats brought in supplies and left with the robes. After it was abandoned by the traders, the army used it for temporary housing during the construction of Fort Buford, which was built using materials from this fort. Fort William 1833 Fort Yates 1877 Huff Indian Village fortified Mandan village.
Camp El Dorado 1866 Camp Schellbourne 1860 Camp Winfield Scott 1866 Fort Churchill 1860 adobe Fort Halleck 1867 known as the coldest post in the U.S., during winter the temperature went as low as -50. Fort Mc Dermit 1865 Fort McGrary 1865 Fort Ruby 1862 log Morman Station 1849 originally a log house trading post built by Hampden Beattie. John Reese a Salt Lake City Morman, built the stockade and huts naming it Morman Station. Orsen Hyde was sent by Brigham Young to establish authority in the area re-named it Fort Genoa. In 1872 two fires destroyed several buildings. Ten years later the community was all but completely taken out by snow. Old Las Vegas Morman Fort 1855 Morman settler's adobe stockade fort. The Union occupied it during the Civil War. Oldest building in the state.
Boggy Depot 1861 Camp Commanche 1834 built for use to shelter ailing soldiers unable to continue the expedition through Indian Lands. Camp Radziminski 1858 temporary army camp. Chouteau's Post 1796 Fort Arbuckle 1851 (Byars) sub post of Fort Gibson. Fort Arbuckle 1834 (Tulsa) abandoned. Fort Cantonment 1879 Fort Cobb 1859 Fort Coffee 1834 Fort Davis 186Fort Fort Gibson 1824 Fort Holmes 1834 Fort McCulloch 1862 Fort Nichols 1865 established by Kit Carson. Fort Reno 1874 Fort Sill 1869 built by Buffalo Soldiers to watch over Kiowa and Commanche tribes. Fort Supply 1868 Fort Towson 1824 Fort Washita 1842 Fort Wayne 1839 Neosho Post 1829 trading post set up by Sam Houston.
Astoria Post 1811 first American settlement west of the Rockies. Pacific Fur trading post until 1813 when bought by the Northwest Co. later it became a Hudson's Bay trading post called Fort George which eventually grew into the town of Astoria. Camp Watson 1864
Fort Clatsop 1805 built by Lewis and Clark as a winter camp before returning east. Chinook, Clatsop, Cathlamet and Tillamook Indians aided in its construction. Fort Dalles 1850 the only U.S. Amry post between Fort Laramie and Fort Vancouver on the Oregon Trail. It was also a supply base during Indian campaigns. Fort Deposit 1845 settlers would leave their wagons here for the winter. Fort Henrietta 1856 Fort Klamath 1863 originally a settler's fort. Fort Lane 1853 log and mud structur. Fort Lloyd 1877 Fort Orford 1851 old settler's fort. Fort Rock prehistoric Indians once resided in this ancient volcano crater. Fort Stevens 1852 Fort Yamhill 1856 Government Camp 1849 settlers camped here and named the spot for the rusting abandonded wagons the U.S. Calvery had left there.
SOUTH DAKOTA FORTS
Camp Collier 1876 Camp Jenny 1875 Camp Bert 1875 Camp Reynolds 1859 Camp Warren 1857 Fort Buckingham 1890 a civilian fort built during the Ghost Dance uprisings. Fort Collins 1875 Fort Dakota 1865 Fort Defiance1842 Fort Kiowa 1882 Fort Manual 1812 St. Louis Missouri Fur Company trading post. Fort Meade 1878 originally called Camp Sturgis. Fort Pierre 1823 an American Fur Company trading post as well as the state's first permanent white settlement. Fort Sisseton 1864 Fort Sully 1863 in 1822 it was known as Fort Tecumseh and belonged to the Columbia Fur Company. Fort Vermillion 1835 Lac Travers Post 1817 Hudson's Bay post. Sarpy's Post 1830 fur trading post.
Black's Fort 1851 Blanco House 1853 fortified houses. Camp Henderson 1854 Cook's Fort 1846 Fort Belknap 1851 Fort Boggy 1840 Fort Crogham 1849 Fort Fisher 1837 Fort Fitzhugh 1845 Fort Gates 1849 Fort Grahm 1849 Fort Houston 1836 (Palestine) Fort Layday 1836 Fort Martin Scott 1848 Fort Milam 1834 Fort Parker 1833 Fort Phantom Hill 1851 Fort Preston 1840 originally an 1830's trading post. Fort Richardson 1867 Fort Smith 1846 Fort Warren 1836 originally a trading post Forth Griffin 1867 Forth Worth 1849 named Camp Worth until 1849, built for the protection of settlers, and was abandoned when no longer needed. The settlers then used the vacated fort to establish the town. John Duncan's Fort settler's fort.
Camp Floyd 1858 Echo Canyon Breastworks 1857 Fort Cameron 1872 Fort Deseret 1865 Morman settler's fort. Fort Douglas 1862 one of the oldest Army posts in Utah. Fort Floyd 1858 Fort Harmony 1852 Morman settler's fort abandoned shortly after it was built, then re-established in 1854 only to be flooded out by a rainstorm. Fort Nephi 1851 Old Cove Fort 1866
American Camp 1859 Crockett Blockhouse 1855 Davis Blockhouse 1855 Fort Bellingham 1854 Fort Casey 1897 Fort Eaton 1855 Fort Flagler 1897 Fort Lawton 1897 Fort Nisqually 1833 a Hudson's Bay Company blockhouse originally located at the mouth of the Nisqually river. Fort Steilacoom 1849 first federal fort in Puget Sound. Fort Warden 1898 Fort Wilson 1855 Old fort Townsen 1856
Camp Hat Creek 1876 Camp Stambaugh 1870 Fort Bonneville 1832 Rocky Mountain Trading post. Fort Bridger 1844 started as a log trading post, then used by the Mormans from 1853 to 1857who then burned it during trouble with the U.S. Army. In 1858 it was purchased by the Army and rebuilt to serve as protection for the pony express and Overland routs. Fort Caspar 1862 Fort David A. Russell 1867 Fort Fetterman 1867 Fort Fred Steele 1868 Fort Halleck 1862 Fort La Clede 1863 Fort Laramie 1841 this stockaded wooden post originally built in 1834, is the state's first permanent trading post and at the time was called Fort William, it was sold to the American Fur Company in 1836 then in 1841 it was rebuilt into an adobe fort called Fort John years later in 1849 it was purchased by the U.S. Army and used to protect the Oregon Trail, though its name was Fort John it was almost always referred to as Fort Laramie. Elf thumbs-up for this one ---a must see. Also has special Christmas at the fort. Fort Mackenzie 1899 Fort McKinny 1876 Fort Phil Kearney 1866 Fort Reno 1865 stockaded log fort. Fort Sanders 1866 Fort Washakie 1869 originally a sub post of Fort Bridger. First built in Lander as Camp Auger then Camp Brown. In 1870 it was then moved to its current location becoming an independent post in 1871. It was re-named in 1878 to Fort Washakie. Fort Yellowstone 1886 originally Camp Sheridan built for protection against poachers. Pine Grove Station 1860's fortified stage station. Rock Creek Station 1860